Oubapo – Ouvroir de Bande Dessinee Potentialle.
Workshop for potential comic strips.
Using similar concerns to the Oulipo, Oubapo uses the comic strip and applies constraints, rules or structures. The Oulipo Compendium list some of the constraints that have been applied by various artists, for instance
1. iconographic restriction – The exclusion of specified pictorial elements.
2. Graphic restriction – the exclusion of specified graphic elements. A voluntary impoverishment of the comic strips ‘pictorial vocabulary.
3. Scenic restriction. constraints of the scene within the strips and of the way srips are framed.
4. Iconographic Repetition. – the repetition of a single image or sequence of images.
dINOSAUR COMICS BY rYAN nORTH is an ongoing web based comic that uses the same six panels every time. It has been compared to David Lynchs THE ANGRIEST DOG IN The WORLD which ran in the Los Angeles reader for several months .
b- partial icongraphic representation.
5. multi-readability. strips that can be read in more than one direction.
a – acrostic strips. the frames can be read both horizontally and vertically.
b. palindromic strips. strips that can be read both backwards and forwards.
6. Reversibilty. The drawings can be read both ways up.
7. Overlapping. Modification of astrip by folding or covering it with something that alters it.
8. Random consecutiveness. A strip whose frames can be read in any order. example. Anne Baraou & Corinne Chalmeau Apres tout tant pis ( Hor Gabarit, 1991 ) The individual frames are printed on the faces of 3 dice which create a narrative when cast.
9.Regulated distribution. Any pictorial element can be regulated by mathematical, oulippian or other constraints.
10. Geometrical arrangement. The layout of the comic strip framesfollows predetermined constraints.
1. a strip usually has both text and images, substitution can affect both.
1a. verbal substitution . new texts are inserterd in an existing strip.
1b. Icongraphic substitution. the text is preserved, teh images replaced.
1c. total substitution. ‘ a doubleblind method invented by Killoffer that requires 3 participants. the first creates or chooses a strip and gives it drawings ( but not its text) to the second participant and teh text O( not the drawings) to the third. The second writes a text for the drawings, the third makes drawings for the text. neither sees each others work until the the two components are combined into an entirely new strip.
2. transformation of text by oulipian methods.
3.Expansion. new frames inserted into an existing strip according to a predetermined ( usually mathematical rule )
4. reduction. slenderising. – removing frames.
5. re framing
a. detasils of an existing strip are excerpted and reframed.
b. additions are made to frames in an existing strip.
6. graphic reinterpretation. a strip is redrawn according to predetermined criteria. the genre can be modified – funny – detective strip finstance. iconographic elements can be reversed, viewpoints altered etc.
7. Hybridisation. Two strips combined into one, by alternating their frames, or exchanging their texts.
EXAMPLE. The famous strip in the Schoolkids issue of OZ magazine, may 1970, in which teh head of Rupert Bear was superimposed onto an undeniably prurient cartoon by Robert Crumb. This became the reason for the magazines prosecution for obscenity.